Commedia all'italiana; A. Anul carbonarilor; C. Café Express; Cât de mult ne-am iubit; Creola, ochii-ți ard ca flacăra; D. Depășirea (film) Divorț italian; G. Gardianul (film din 1960) M. Made in Italy (film din 1965) Marele război; Micul scăldător; P. Pâine și ciocolată ; V. Viață dificilă; Ultima editare a paginii a fost efectuată la 2 decembrie 2018, ora 19:57. For example, pantomime, which flourished in the 18th century, owes its genesis to the character types of the commedia, particularly Harlequin. Algumas pessoas vieram me pedir recomendações de comédias italianas nos últimos dias. 14.6k Followers, 161 Following, 255 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from la commedia all’italiana (@la__commedia_all_italiana) With the dispatch of the Italian comedians from France in 1697, the form transmogrified in the 18th century as genres such as comédie larmoyante gained in attraction in France, particularly through the plays of Marivaux.  Some historians argue that Atellan stock characters, Pappus, Maccus+Buccus, and Manducus, are the primitive versions of the Commedia characters Pantalone, Pulcinella, and il Capitano. However, the connection to carnival (the period between Epiphany and Ash Wednesday) would suggest that masking was a convention of carnival and was applied at some point. In the Flaminio Scala scenario for example, Il Magnifico persists and is interchangeable with Pantalone, into the seventeenth century. The commedia genesis may be related to carnival in Venice, where by 1570 the author/actor Andrea Calmo had created the character Il Magnifico, the precursor to the vecchio (old man) Pantalone. These characters included the forebears of the modern clown, namely Harlequin (arlecchino) and the zanni. There are countless variations on this story, as well as many that diverge wholly from the structure, such as a well-known story about Arlecchino becoming mysteriously pregnant, or the Punch and Judy scenario. The Atellan Farces of the Roman Empire featured crude "types" wearing masks with grossly exaggerated features and an improvised plot. This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 15:28. The tradition in Northern Italy is centered in Mantua, Florence, and Venice, where the major companies came under the aegis of the various dukes. While Calmo's characters (which also included the Spanish Capitano and a dottore type) were not masked, it is uncertain at what point the characters donned the mask. , Il Capitano's costume is similar to Il Dottore's in the fact that it is also a satire on military wear of the time. A special characteristic of commedia dell'arte are the lazzi. Parece-me que a forma final da commedia all'italiana, que retoma várias formas já propostas em alguns filmes de telefoni bianchi, nas comédias de Steno com Totò e Sordi, é deslanchada em três filmes realizados por Dino Risi e Mario Monicelli em questão de pouco mais de um ano, e tudo o… more Conventional plot lines were written on themes of sex, jealousy, love and old age. Director: Alberto Lattuada | Stars: Ugo Tognazzi, Francesca Romana Coluzzi, Milena Vukotic, Angela Goodwin married an old man, or a high-class courtesan. 19-lug-2015 - Esplora la bacheca "Vittorio Gassman" di Valentina Travisi su Pinterest. La storia, i luoghi, gli autori, gli attori, i film. For examples of strange instruments of various grotesque formations see articles by Tom Heck, who has documented this area. Ordfront. Visualizza altre idee su Cinema, Attori, Sassofono contralto. This was in reference to the nomadic nature of the troupes, often instigated by persecution from the Church, civil authorities, and rival theatre organisations that forced the companies to move from place to place. While it is possible to detect formal similarities between the commedia dell'arte and earlier theatrical traditions, there is no way to establish certainty of origin. A year later Risi extended commedia all’italiana ’s gloss on recent Italian history to the threshold of Italy’s so-called “economic miracle” of the late 1950s with Una vita difficile (A Difficult Life, 1961), in which an ex-partisan, played by Alberto Sordi in one of his finest performances, finds all his hopes for a better Italy progressively and comprehensively crushed as the country begins its shift into … The works of a number of playwrights have featured characters influenced by the commedia dell'arte and sometimes directly drawn from it. Among the great innamorate, Isabella Andreini was perhaps the most widely known, and a medallion dedicated to her reads "eternal fame". November 2010 in Rom "True social criticism is They would take advantage of public fairs and celebrations, most often in wealthier towns where financial success was more probable. Each character in commedia dell'arte has a distinct costume that helps the audience understand who the character is. Taviani, Ferdinando and Marotti, Ferruccio, and Romei, Giovanna. Female characters (including female servants) are most often not masked (female amorose are never masked). Not all scenari were comic, there were some mixed forms and even tragedies. Dec 1, 2016 - Alessandro Gassman...who else?. , The characters of the commedia usually represent fixed social types and stock characters, such as foolish old men, devious servants, or military officers full of false bravado. The Callot etchings of the Balli di Sfessania (1611) are most widely considered capricci rather than actual depictions of a commedia dance form, or typical masks. Lucrezia Di Siena, whose name is on a contract of actors from 10 October 1564, has been referred to as the first Italian actress known by name, with Vincenza Armani and Barbara Flaminia as the first primadonnas and the first well documented actresses in Italy (and Europe). Taviani's term negativa poetica describes this and other practices offensive to the church, while giving us an idea of the phenomenon of the commedia dell'arte performance. Shakespeare's The Tempest is drawn from a popular scenario in the Scala collection, his Polonius (Hamlet) is drawn from Pantalone, and his clowns bear homage to the zanni. English Translation of “commedia” | The official Collins Italian-English Dictionary online. La commedia all'italiana fu una creazione di Cinecittà e inizialmente venne ambientata spesso a Roma, con attori romani o, ancor più spesso, romani d'adozione (ad esempio, Gassman, nato a Genova, si trasferì a Roma giovanissimo, Tognazzi, cremonese, fece i suoi primi passi nell' avanspettacolo della capitale, Mastroianni e Manfredi, originari della Ciociaria, si formarono artisticamente nella Città eterna). Influences appear in the lodgers in Steven Berkoff's adaptation of Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis.  Theatre historian Martin Green points to the extravagance of emotion during the period of commedia's emergence as the reason for representational moods, or characters, that define the art. The expressive theatre influenced Molière's comedy and subsequently ballet d'action, thus lending a fresh range of expression and choreographic means. Callisto Cosulich, Storia di un mattatore, Cinecittà News, 4/6/2004, «Durante gli anni '70, la commedia assume colorazioni vieppiù sinistre, la risata muore nella strozza ed il lieto fine compare assai di rado. Commedia का अंग्रेजी अनुवाद |। आधिकारिक कोलिन्स इतालवी-अंग्रेज़ी शब्दकोश ऑनलाइन। 100,000 से अधिक अंग्रेजी इतालवी शब्दों और वाक्यांशों के अनुवाद। A lazzo is a joke or "something foolish or witty", usually well known to the performers and to some extent a scripted routine. Commedia evolved into various configurations across Europe, and each country acculturated the form to its liking. Meaning that on stage, each character was performed in its own dialect. Categoria: Libri - Cinema. Commedia all’italiana (”komedia italialaiseen tapaan”) on italialaisen elokuvan tyylilaji.Ensimmäinen Commedia all’italiana-elokuva oli Mario Monicellin ohjaama vuoden 1958 I soliti ignoti.Tyylilaji kukoisti erityisesti 1960-luvulla, jolloin Italian talous kasvoi voimakkaasti ja aiheutti nopean yhteiskunnallisen muutoksen. Para mim inclusive. Film data from TMDb. An example of a commedia dell'arte character in literature is the Pied Piper of Hamelin who is dressed as Harlequin. Emerenziano, a middle-aged tax inspector, is in search of a wealthy wife. Their character was played with a malicious wit or gossipy gaiety. Le commedie anteriori a I soliti ignoti (...) appaiono impregnate di neoralismo rosa, di cultura strapaesana, (...) quelle posteriori a La terrazza sono spesso opere anacronistiche, impacciate, realizzate con uno stile che non ha più senso se disgiunto dalle tematiche che lo avevano modellato e condotto a maturazione: frutti ormai tardivi, staccati dai rami, anche se un certo profumo si fa ancora sentire.» Enrico Giacovelli, La commedia all'italiana - La storia, i luoghi, gli autori, gli attori, i film, pp. Italia Film Streaming in. , Il Dottore's costume was a play on the academic dress of the Bolognese scholars. Acabei fazendo esta lista, com filmes que já assisti e filmes que quero assistir - nos dois casos, filmes que recomendo. This was believed to make performances more natural, as well as strengthening the bonds within the troupe, who emphasized complete unity between every member.  The companies would employ carpenters, props masters, servants, nurses, and prompters, all of whom would travel with the company. Concomitantly, a Neapolitan tradition emerged in the south and featured the prominent stage figure Pulcinella. Actors, both male and female, were known to strip nearly naked, and storylines typically descended into crude situations with overt sexuality, considered to teach nothing but "lewdness and adultery...of both sexes" by the French Parliament. Commedia dell'arte moved outside the city limits to the théâtre de la foire, or fair theatres, in the early 17th century as it evolved toward a more pantomimed style. Made by fans in Auckland, New Zealand. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. There is also a female character known as The Courtisane who can also have a servant. During the Napoleonic occupation of Italy, instigators of reform and critics of French Imperial rule (such as Giacomo Casanova) used the carnival masks to hide their identities while fueling political agendas, challenging social rule and hurling blatant insults and criticisms at the regime. Thesegenre films were dominated by some excellent commercial directors who acquired auteur status by virtue of their comic genius: Mario Monicelli (b. The commedia sexy all'italiana, also known as commedia scollacciata or commedia erotica all'italiana, is a subgenre of Italian commedia all'italiana film genre. While generally personally unscripted, the performances often were based on scenarios that gave some semblance of plot to the largely improvised format.  The characters are exaggerated "real characters", such as a know-it-all doctor called Il Dottore, a greedy old man called Pantalone, or a perfect relationship like the Innamorati. Harlequin, in particular, was allowed to comment on current events in his entertainment.. Parece-me que a forma final da commedia all'italiana, que retoma várias formas já propostas em alguns filmes de telefoni bianchi, nas comédias de Steno com Totò e Sordi, é deslanchada em três filmes realizados por Dino Risi e Mario Monicelli em questão de pouco mais de um ano, e tudo o que se segue realmente expande o que já estava contido em germe nesses filmes. Amici miei č la vera commedia all'italiana, diretta da un maestro del nostro cinema con attori in stato di grazia. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more. Typically, he would wear a tightly fitting jacket with a matching pair of trousers. 1916), Dino Risi (b. The danzatrice probably accompanied the troupes, and may have been in addition to the general cast of characters. In commedia each character embodies a mood: mockery, sadness, gaiety, confusion, and so forth. Despite fluctuations the Gelosi maintained stability for performances with the "usual ten": "two vecchi (old men), four innamorati (two male and two female lovers), two zanni, a captain and a servetta (serving maid)". The female character in the masters group is called Prima Donna and can be one of the lovers. Leoncavallo's tragic melodrama Pagliacci depicts a commedia dell'arte company in which the performers find their life situations reflecting events they depict on stage. He travels to Italy where he meets three sisters, who, though wealthy, are not by any stretch of the imagination young or beautiful. Women, who usually played servants or lovers, wore less stylized costumes than the men in commedia. Three books written during the 17th century—Cecchini's [it] Fruti della moderne commedia (1628), Niccolò Barbieri's La supplica (1634) and Perrucci's Dell'arte rapresentativa (1699—"made firm recommendations concerning performing practice." Commedia iconography is evident in porcelain figurines many selling for thousands of dollars at auction. Selected filmography. Pulcinella has been long associated with Naples, and derived into various types elsewhere—the most famous as the puppet character Punch (of the eponymous Punch and Judy shows) in England. Visualizza altre idee su attori, celebrità, attrici. The amorosi are often children of a male character in the masters group, but not of any female character in the masters group, which may represent younger women who have e.g. Magistrates and clergy were not always receptive to the traveling compagnie (companies), particularly during periods of plague, and because of their itinerant nature.  Il Dottore is almost always clothed entirely in black. Curiously, commedia dell'arte was equally if not more popular in France, where it continued its popularity throughout the 17th century (until 1697), and it was in France that commedia developed its established repertoire. Companies in fact preferred to not stay in any one place too long, mostly out of a fear of the act becoming "stale." Commedia dell'arte has four stock character groups: the servants or Zanni, these are characters such as Arlecchino, Brighella, Pulcinella and Pedrolino, all masked; the old men or vecchi, characters such as Pantalone and il Dottore also masked; the lovers or innamorati who would have names such as Flavio and Isabella; and the captains or Capitani who can also be La Signora if a female. In the 18th century, Watteau's painting of commedia figures intermingling with the aristocracy were often set in sumptuous garden or pastoral settings and were representative of that genre. Commedia all’italiana este denumirea genului de filme italiene de comedie de la sfârșitul anilor 1950 și 1960.  Some date the origins to the period of the Roman Republic (Plautine types) or the Empire (Atellan Farces). Nino Manfredi, l’eroe positivo della commedia all’italiana. Arlecchino originally wore a tight fitting long jacket with matching trousers that both had numerous odd shaped patches, usually green, yellow, red, and brown. TAGS Miami Beach film completo streaming ita MIGLIORE QUALITA – Miami Beach – guarda film completo italiano HD Miami Beach la gonna blu Guarda Film. The Gelosi performed in Northern Italy and France where they received protection and patronage from the King of France. Join here. Although Commedia dell'arte flourished in Italy during the Mannerist period, there has been a long-standing tradition of trying to establish historical antecedents in antiquity. However, each troupe had its impresse (like a coat of arms) which symbolized its nature. 1916), Some were doctors, others priests, others soldiers, enticed by the excitement and prevalence of theatre in Italian society.  This costume would therefore change depending on where the Capitano character is from, and the period the Capitano is from. Tristano Martinelli achieved international fame as the first of the great Arlecchinos, and was honored by the Medici and the Queen of France.  Commedia is a form of theatre characterized by masked "types" which began in Italy in the 16th century and was responsible for the advent of actresses (Isabella Andreini) and improvised performances based on sketches or scenarios. «Certamente non mancano, prima del 1958 e dopo il 1980, commedie che potrebbero considerarsi per molti versi "all'italiana". Unul din primele filme ale acestui gen, poate fi considerat Divorț italian (Divorzio all’italiana, 1961) a lui Pietro Germi. Brighella was often depicted with a guitar, and many images of the commedia feature singing innamorati or dancing figures. It was not reborn in Venice until 1979..  In 1653, his costume was changed by Augustin Lolli who was a very popular Il Dottore actor. Luigi Pisani e Giorgia Trasselli. Comici performed written comedies at court. Since the productions were improvised, dialogue and action could easily be changed to satirize local scandals, current events, or regional tastes, while still using old jokes and punchlines. In the early period, representative works by painters at Fontainebleau were notable for their erotic depictions of the thinly veiled innamorata, or the bare-breasted courtesan/actress. By the early 17th century, the zanni comedies were moving from pure improvisational street performances to specified and clearly delineated acts and characters. By the end of the 1570s, Italian prelates attempted to ban female performers; however, by the end of the 16th century, actresses were standard on the Italian stage. The classic, traditional plot is that the innamorati are in love and wish to be married, but one elder (vecchio) or several elders (vecchi) are preventing this from happening, leading the lovers to ask one or more zanni (eccentric servants) for help. Indeed, Molière shared the stage with the Comédie-Italienne at Petit-Bourbon, and some of his forms, e.g.  Some of the better known commedia dell'arte characters are Pierrot and Pierrette, Pantalone, Il Dottore, Brighella, Il Capitano, Colombina, the innamorati, Pedrolino, Sandrone, Scaramuccia (also known as Scaramouche), La Signora, and Tartaglia. Harlequin achieved more prominence during this period. Mai 1915 in Rom; † 29. Generally, the actors playing were diverse in background in terms of class and religion, and performed anywhere they could. Commedia All'Italiana Mario Monicelli 1950er und 60er in Italien "The commedia all’italiana is the opposite, nothing is resolved and you’re left with a bittersweet feeling” - Monicelli (Phillips, 2010) * 16. , Many troupes were formed to perform commedia dell'arte, including I Gelosi (which had actors such as Isabella Andreini, and her husband Francesco Andreini), Confidenti Troupe, Desioi Troupe, and Fedeli Troupe. In keeping with the tradition of the Italian Academies, I Gelosi adopted as their impress (or coat of arms) the two-faced Roman god Janus. Acquista. Giacomo Oreglia (2002).  His hat, which was a soft cap, was modeled after Charles IX or after Henri II, and almost always had a tail of a rabbit, hare or a fox with the occasional tuft of feathers. Song and dance were widely used, and a number of innamorati were skilled madrigalists, a song form that uses chromatics and close harmonies. Audiences came to see the performers, with plot lines becoming secondary to the performance. commedia all'italiana.  Movements of the piece reflect the names of many characters of the Commedia, including Pierrot, Harlequin, Pantalon and Columbine. Mozart's Don Giovanni sets a puppet show story and comic servants like Leporello and Figaro have commedia precedents. This nomadic nature, though influenced by persecution, was also largely due in part to the troupes requiring new (and paying) audiences. "Comedy in the Italian way"; pronounced [komˈmɛːdja …  Another characteristic of commedia dell'arte is pantomime, which is mostly used by the character Arlecchino (Harlequin). French playwrights, particularly Molière, gleaned from the plots and masks in creating an indigenous treatment. Commedia dell'arte was formerly called Italian comedy in English and is also known as commedia alla maschera, commedia improvviso, and commedia dell'arte all'improvviso. Nata alla fine degli anni sessanta, ha avuto grande successo in Italia e in Sudamerica per un decennio circa, per poi declinare a partire dal 1982-1983.  Usually, there was a bat and a wallet that would hang from his belt. Visualizza altre idee su vittoriano, cinema, attori. "Faction of Fools | A History of Commedia dell'Arte", https://calperformances.org/learn/program_notes/2011/pn_gerstein.pdf, http://benjaminpesetsky.com/writing/program-notes/robert-schumann-carnaval-op-9/, "The Commedia dell'arte: Its Origins, Development & Influence on the Ballet", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Commedia_dell%27arte&oldid=995157713, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from March 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Colorful tight fitting jacket and trousers, Can be colorful on par with Arlecchino or black and white, Compagnia dei Fedeli: active 1601–52, with, Compagnia dei Confidenti: active 1574–99; reformed under, Aguirre, Mariano 'Qué es la Commedia dell'arte' (Spanish). Commedia all'italiana ("Comèdia a la italiana") és un gènere cinematogràfic italià. It is possible that this kind of improvised acting was passed down the Italian generations until the 17th century, when it was revived as a professional theatrical technique. Actors were known to switch from troupe to troupe "on loan," and companies would often collaborate if unified by a single patron or performing in the same general location. In the 17th century as commedia became popular in France, the characters of Pierrot, Columbine and Harlequin were refined and became essentially Parisian, according to Green.. Performers made use of well-rehearsed jokes and stock physical gags, known as lazzi and concetti, as well as on-the-spot improvised and interpolated episodes and routines, called burle (singular burla, Italian for joke), usually involving a practical joke. Companies would also find themselves summoned by high-ranking officials, who would offer patronage in return for performing in their land for a certain amount of time. The Flaminio Scala scenarios, published in the early 17th century, are the most widely known collection and representative of its most esteemed compagnia, I Gelosi. Commedia dell'arte (UK: /kɒˈmeɪdiə dɛl ˈɑːrteɪ/, US: /kəˈ- ... -ti, -ˈmɛd-/, Italian: [komˈmɛːdja delˈlarte]; meaning "comedy of the profession") was an early form of professional theatre, originating from Italy, that was popular in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century. LA PRIMA SCUOLA NAZIONALE DELLA COMMEDIA ALL’ITALIANA Per attori professionisti dai 18 ai 40 anni OPEN DAY E PRESENTAZIONE DELLA SCUOLA: LUNEDI’ 14 SETTEMBRE... ore 14.30 Saranno presenti: Pietro De Silva, Francesca Nunzi, Marco Simeoli, Enzo Casertano, Antonio Grosso. In fact, it was considered part of the innamorati function to be able to sing and have the popular repertoire under their belt. Parece-me que a forma final da commedia all'italiana, que retoma várias formas já propostas em alguns filmes de telefoni bianchi, nas comédias de Steno com Totò e Sordi, é deslanchada em três filmes realizados por Dino Risi e Mario Monicelli em questão de pouco mais de um ano, e tudo o…. Marivaux softened the commedia considerably by bringing in true emotion to the stage. Ad una evidente ragione anagrafica (alla fine del decennio, gente come Pietrangeli, Germi o De Sica non c'è più; mentre i Comencini, i Risi, i Monicelli han superato ampiamente la sessantina), si aggiunge il clima del paese che sprofonda - lentamente ma inesorabilmente - nell'incubo degli anni di piombo», da: Tendenze, generi, opere, autori del cinema nazionale, scheda di Danila Filipponi in www.italica.rai.it/cinema/, «Mentre l'ombra della morte fa capolino nelle zingarate di Amici miei (1975) di Monicelli, Ettore Scola s'incarica di chiudere un'epoca con due superbe pellicole: C'eravamo tanto amati (1974) è sintesi mirabile di tutto ciò che la commedia italiana è stata, La terrazza (1980) pietra tombale mestamente apposta sulla medesima, senza tuttavia piangere il morto» da: Tendenze, generi, opere, autori del cinema nazionale, scheda di Danila Filipponi in www.italica.rai.it/cinema/. The jacket became shorter and his hat changed from a soft cap to a double pointed hat. Tivoli has regular performances. However, it is more probable that the comici used contemporary novella, or, traditional sources as well, and drew from current events and local news of the day. A troupe often consisted of ten performers of familiar masked and unmasked types, and included women. Lista attori a-z. Commedia dell'arte. The Flemish influence is widely documented as commedia figures entered the world of the vanitas genre, depicting the dangers of lust, drinking, and the hedonistic lifestyle. 19-nov-2020 - Esplora la bacheca "Attori famosi" di Enrico Iaconianni su Pinterest. Stock characters and situations also appear in ballet. Castagno describes the Flemish pittore vago (wandering painters) who assimilated themselves within Italian workshops and even assumed Italian surnames: one of the most influential painters, Lodewyk Toeput, for example, became Ludovico Pozzoserrato and was a celebrated painter in the Veneto region of Italy.  Commedia dell'arte was often performed outside on platforms or in popular areas such as a piazza.  During the 17th century, the patches turned into blue, red, and green triangles arranged in a symmetrical pattern. “Un americano a Roma” è un cult della commedia all’italiana diretto da Steno nel 1954. Castagno posits that the aesthetic of exaggeration, distortion, anti-humanism (as in the masked types), and excessive borrowing as opposed to originality was typical of all the arts in the late Italian Renaissance. Prominent examples include The Tempest by William Shakespeare, Les Fourberies de Scapin by Molière, Servant of Two Masters (1743) by Carlo Goldoni, the Figaro plays of Pierre Beaumarchais, and especially Love for Three Oranges, Turandot and other fiabe by Carlo Gozzi. The iconography of the commedia dell'arte represents an entire field of study that has been examined by commedia scholars such as Erenstein, Castagno, Katritzky, Molinari, and others. Flaminio Scala, who had been a minor performer in the Gelosi published the scenarios of the commedia dell'arte around the start of the 17th century, really in an effort to legitimize the form—and ensure its legacy. , early form of professional theatre originating in Italy.  Members would also splinter off to form their own troupes, such was the case with the Ganassa and the Gelosi. Additionally, each character has a singular costume and mask that is representative of the character's role.. Bakken has daily performances for children by Pierrot and a puppet version of Pulcinella resembling Punch and Judy. The Gelosi, for example, used the two-headed face of the Roman god Janus, to signify its comings and goings and relationship to the season of Carnival, which took place in January. Female characters in the masters group, while younger than their male counterparts, are nevertheless older than the amorosi. The first recorded commedia dell'arte performances came from Rome as early as 1551. These compagnie traveled throughout Europe from the early period, beginning with the Soldati, then, the Ganassa, who traveled to Spain, and were famous for playing the guitar and singing—never to be heard from again—and the famous troupes of the Golden Age (1580–1605): Gelosi, Confidenti, Accessi. Find the best information and most relevant links on all topics related toThis domain may be for sale! The lovers, Innamorati, would wear what was considered to be the fashion of the time period.  The 18th century is when the iconic Arlecchino look with the diamond shaped lozenges took shape. La commedia all'italiana. He decides to marry one of them. By the mid-16th century, specific troupes of commedia performers began to coalesce, and by 1568 the Gelosi became a distinct company.  In France, during the reign of Louis XIV, the Comédie-Italienne created a repertoire and delineated new masks and characters, while deleting some of the Italian precursors, such as Pantalone.  Commedia often performed inside in court theatres or halls, and also as some fixed theatres such as Teatro Baldrucca in Florence.  The form of theatre originated in Italy, but travelled throughout Europe and even to Moscow.. In 1797, in order to destroy the impromptu style of carnival as a partisan platform, Napoleon outlawed the commedia dell'arte. La commedia sexy all'italiana è un sottogenere della commedia all'italiana e di vari generi cine-letterari tipicamente italiani, dei quali commistiona vaghe suggestioni e soprattutto luoghi comuni. The servants or the clowns are referred to as the zanni and include characters such as Arlecchino (also known as Harlequin), Brighella, Scapino, Pulcinella and Pedrolino. L'Archivio completo di tutte le attrici e gli attori italiani e internazionali. Compagnie, or companies, were troupes of actors, each of whom had a specific function or role. O comum é considerar que o gênero começa realmente com I soliti ignoti e termina com L'ingorgo e La terrazza; nos dois casos eu não respeitei esse quadro proposto pelos historiadores do gênero. Female servants wore bonnets. Soubrette characters like Susanna in Le nozze di Figaro, Zerlina in Don Giovanni and Despina in Così fan tutte recall Columbina and related characters.